With increasing demands for cost-cutting and global awareness of sustainability, shrink-wrapped tray-based unit loads are becoming increasingly common. This type of packaging exposes the primary packages to external loads which they do not experience when shipped in full cases such as, pre-tension of the shrink wrap, tightness, pattern and number of turns of stretch film, stacking load, side compression load, incidental side impact load from transportation, etc. Computer simulation tools can evaluate the unit load stability and performance and can also go a step further to assess the potential for primary package damage that could be caused by exposure to these external loads. Such simulation can detect potential issues with the primary package at an early stage of the development process, before physical samples are available, with commensurate reductions in risk, cost, and speed to market.
DeHoff, Stephen P., Haynes, Clinton A., Yuan, Jay Z., “Simulation of Primary Plastic Package Damage in a Tray-Based Unit Load” ISTA International Transportation Packaging Forum, April 18-21, 2011, Orlando, Florida.